Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر)
Often abbreviated to Eid, is a three-day Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). Eid is an Arabic word meaning “festivity,” while Fiṭr means “original nature,” implying the restoration of one’s best human composition. The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the thirty days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The first day of Eid, therefore, falls on the first day of the month Shawwal.
Eid-ul-Fitr Salat (Namaz in Persian) is a Sunnah muak’kad (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandoob (preferable) – depending on which juristic opinion is followed – Islamic prayer consisting of two raka’ah (units) which is generally offered in an open field or large hall called an Eed-gah. This salaat or prayer, can only be performed with Jama’at (i.e., in congregation) and has an additional extra six Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying Allahu Akbar (God is Great), three of them in the beginning of the first raka’ah and three of them just before ruku’ in the second raka’ah in the Hanafi school.
Muslims are commanded by God in the Qur’an to complete their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat al-fitr before doing the Eid prayer.
Eid al-Adha, Eid ul-Adha, Id-ul-Adha, or Id al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى)
“Festival of Sacrifice” or “Greater Eid” is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Abraham (Ibrahim) to sacrifice his son Ishmael (Isma’il) as an act of obedience to God, before God intervened to provide him with a ram to sacrifice instead. The meat is divided into three parts. The family retains one third of the share; another third is given to relatives, friends and neighbors; and the other third is given to the poor and needy.
Eid al-Adha is the latter of two Eid festivals celebrated by Muslims, whose basis comes from Sura 2 (Al-Baqara) Ayah 196 in the Qur’an. Like Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha begins with a Wajib prayer of two Raka’ah (units) followed by a sermon (khuṭbah).
The word “Eid” appears in Sura al-Mai’da (“The Table Spread,” Chapter 5) of the Qur’an, meaning ‘solemn festival’.
Eid al-Adha is celebrated annually on the 10th day of the 12th and the last Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah (ذو الحجة) of the lunar Islamic calendar. Eid al-Adha celebrations start after the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia by Muslims worldwide, descend from Mount Arafat. The date is approximately 70 days (2 Months & 10 days) after the end of the month of Ramadan, i.e. Eid-ul-Fitr. Ritual observance of the holiday lasts until sunset of the 13th day of Dhu al-Hijjah.